Refractive Errors


A condition in which images at all distances may be blurred or distorted. High degrees cause distorted or blurred vision and slight degrees may cause headaches, fatigue, poor schoolwork, squinting, eye irritation and discomfort. Astigmatism is usually a result of the front surface of the eye (the cornea) being less round than it should be.

Nearsightedness (myopia):

A condition in which near objects are seen more clearly than objects far away. Squinting is a common sign of nearsightedness as is difficulty distinguishing details on far-away objects like white boards and road signs.

Farsightedness (hyperopia):

A condition in which far away objects are seen more clearly than near objects. Common symptoms include: difficulty in concentrating and maintaining a clear focus on near objects; eye or general tension, fatigue and/or headaches after close work and aching, watering or burning eyes.

Crossed Eyes (strabismus):

Occurs when your eyes are not properly aligned with each other. In some cases, one eye looks directly forward while the other is either turned away from the nose (wall-eyed or exotropia), toward the nose (cross-eyed or esotropia), or higher or lower (vertical misalignment) than the other eye. Signs of crossed-eyes usually appear between birth and the age of 2.

Lazy Eye (amblyopia):

An unexplained loss or lack of visual development in one eye. Unexplained means that though no disease is present and proper corrective lenses are prescribed, the visual acuity of one eye is still below normal. Strabismus and/or a difference in refraction between the right and left eye is usually the cause of amblyopia.

Signs of lazy eye may not be apparent in children. The good eye may see well and mask visual symptoms.


Your eye stops growing in your early teens. The lens, however, continues to grow and produce more and more cells. This continued growth eventually causes the lens to harden and lose some of its elasticity and therefore some focusing ability. Although presbyopia may seem to develop suddenly, the actual decline takes place over the course of many years. Presbyopia usually becomes apparent to people in their early to mid-forties. Some signs and symptoms of presbyopia include: the tendency to hold reading material at arm’s length, blurred vision at normal reading distance and eye fatigue along with headaches when attempting to do close work.

Presbyopia cannot be prevented. It is a natural part of the aging process. The effects of presbyopia constantly change the ability of the eye’s crystalline lens to focus properly. As a result, periodic changes in your eyeglasses or contact lenses are necessary to maintain good vision. To compensate for presbyopia, we may prescribe reading glasses, bifocals, trifocals, progressive addition lenses, contact lenses or refractive surgery.